dashboard interattivi per i quali sono disponibili i dati nell'area download
The provision of infrastructure has a significant impact on the economic development of the country. The proposed indicators relate to motorway and rail infrastructure, major transport flows, road accidents and motorisation rates. Transport and infrastructure also play a key role in their impact on the environment, safety and quality of life of the population.
In 2018, the active railway network managed by RFI S. p.a., extended for 16,710 kilometres (27.7 km per 100 thousand inhabitants). The high-speed rail network accounted for 6,0% of the overall track length.
In 2018, passengers travelling by train were 882 million and each of them travelled for an average of 62.9 km. The inland freight transport by railway developed a traffic of about 10,5 million tonnes-kilometres, confirming the data of the previous year.
In Italy, the air transport of passengers and freight, on commercial flights, has always been characterized by the prevalence of the international component. In fact, in 2018 there were 121.2 million passengers on international flights, against 63.9 million on domestic flights. Europe was the main destination to which passengers travelled by plane. In 2018, the trend was increasing for air passenger transport, also thanks to the increase in low-cost flights, while there was a slight decline in freight transport.
In 2018, cargo loaded and unloaded in cabotage transport amounted to just under 200 million tonnes, a slight decrease compared to 2017 (-1.8%).
Italy has a motorway network that, in 2018, had an extension of 6,943 km, almost unchanged compared to 2017, and substantially stable in relation to circulating cars.
In 2018 road freight transport performance amounted to 19.6 million tonnes-km (Tkm) per 10 thousand inhabitants resulting in a positive increase of 5% compared to 2017.
In 2018, the motorization rate exceeded 646 cars per thousand inhabitants; it increased continuously in the last five years.
In 2018, 71.8% of students and 86.4% of employees used a means of transport to reach the place where they study or work. The car confirmed itself as the most used vehicle: 38.4% of students as passengers and 69.2% of employed as drivers. Students moved more frequently on foot (27.6%) or using public transport (32.6%) than the employed (12.4% and 12.2%, respectively).
In 2018 there were 3,334 deaths in road accidents, a slight decrease compared to the previous year (-1.3%). Consequently, the road mortality rate (deaths in road accidents per million inhabitants) decreased, from 55.8 victims in 2017 to 55.2 victims in 2018.
Although over the years the mortality from road accidents has been marked by a sharp reduction, since 2014 there has been an oscillating trend, with an average of 9 deaths per day.
In 2018, mopeds (108, +17.4%), truck occupants (189, +16%) and pedestrians (612, +2%) victims were increasing.
Instead, cyclists (219, -13.8%), motorcyclists (687, -6.5%) and motorists (1,423, -2.8%) victims were decreasing.
In 2018, significant eterogeneity was observed in the length and technical characteristics of the railway network. In South and Islands geographical areas, the density of the network related to the resident population was similar to the rest of Italy; however, unlike the Centre-North, more than 41% of the lines was not electrified. The length of the high-speed tracks represented 24.1% of the overall regional network in Emilia-Romagna, 13.7% in Lazio, 10.4% in Campania, 8.7% in Lombardia, 8.5% in Piemonte and only 1.7% in Toscana. High speed tracks were absent in the remaining 14 regions.
In 2018, more than 50% of the air transport of passengers disembarked and boarded at Italian airports was concentrated in the Lazio airports of Rome, Fiumicino and Ciampino (48.7 million) and in the Lombardia airports of Milano-Malpensa and Linate, and Bergamo-Orio Al Serio (46.3 million). These were followed in the ranking by Sicilian airports (12.2 million), Sardinian airports (5.6 million) and Puglia airports (4.7 million).
In 2018, almost 33% of the freight transported between Italian ports, in cabotage, was carried out by Sicilia and Sardegna. Compared to 2017, there were significant increases in the quantities of freight transported in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Sardegna, while there were decrease especially in Liguria and Campania. The first region of Italy for freight transport between Italian ports is Sicilia, followed by Liguria, Sardegna and Toscana.
Road freight transport was affected by the varied landform of the country and the geographical concentration of the industrial production. In 2018, the freight transport performance (measured by the ratio tonnes-kilometres and the population) ranges from 11.8 of the South and Islands geographical areas to 32.6 of the North-East geographical area.
In 2018, the infrastructure equipment of the road network (motorway) for 10 thousand cars ranges from a minimum of 1.5 Km in the Centre to 1.7 km in the South and Islands geographical areas, to a maximum of 2.0 km in the North-East and North-West geographical areas. In 2018, the rate of motorization was higher in the North-East, where 682 cars per thousand inhabitants circulated; instead the South and Islands recorded the lowest rate, with 629,8 cars per thousand inhabitants. In the central geographical area, 126.9 motorcycles per thousand inhabitants circulated, while, in the South and Islands geographical area, the ratio was lower (98.6).
In 2018, in southern Italy, students and employees moved more frequently on foot to reach the place where they study (32.4%) or work (29.9%), while in the Centre-North the use of means of transport prevailed. In particular, in the North-West, the share of users of collective means of transport was higher (17.4%) and in the North-East the use of cars (73.9%) or other private means (13.6%) was more frequent among employed persons; in the Centre, the use of cars was more frequent among students as passengers (39.4%).
There were significant territorial differences in the road mortality. The number of deaths in road accidents per million inhabitants was higher than the national average (55.2) in 12 regions, including: Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste (95,3), Liguria (79,8), Basilicata (79,6), Emilia-Romagna (70,9) and Calabria (65,1). It was, however, lower and below the national average in Campania (35.4), Sicilia (41.9), Lombardia (48.1) and Molise (48.9).
In 2018, compared to 2010, the benchmark year for road safety, in Umbria, Molise and Puglia the number of deaths decreased by more than 30%. In Piemonte, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Emilia-Romagna, Toscana, Lazio and Sicilia the reduction exceeded 20%.
In 2017, Italy had 27.8 km of railway network per 100 thousand inhabitants, below the EU average (42.5 km) while, for the electrified double track network the value of 12.6 km for 100 thousand inhabitants was close to the European average (14.7 km).
In 2018, the air passenger transport within the European Union was increasing in all countries. Comparing passenger data to the resident population, Italy had a higher value (2.5%) than the EU average (2.2%). In 2018 Roma-Fiumicino airport ranked ninth per number of passengers among the European airports; while the Milano-Malpensa airport took up the same position for freight transport.
In 2017, Italy was confirmed as the first European country for passenger transport by sea and the fourth for volume of maritime traffic of containers. In 2017, the Port of Trieste was confirmed as the first Italian port for freight transport in the European ranking, positioning itself at the ninth place. For container transport, instead, the Port of Gioia Tauro was the first Italian port in the European ranking, positioning itself in ninth place and followed, at the twelfth place, from the Port of Genova. In 2017, the first Italian port for the passengers transport was that of Messina and the second port was that of Reggio Calabria; the two ports were respectively positioned at the fourth and the seventh place in the ranking of the European ports. Next, there were the Port of Naples at the fourteenth place and the Port of Capri at the twenty-first place.
In 2017, among the EU countries, Italy had a low motorway intensity in relation to cars and circulating vehicles (1.8 km per 10,000 cars), far from the values of Spain, France and Germany (between 2.8 and 6.8 Km per 10,000 cars in 2016). In 2017, Poland, with approximately 378 billion tonnes-km, ranked first for road freight transport performance; Italy, with about 125 billion tonnes-km, ranks sixth with a lower value than all the major EU countries.
In 2017, Italy was by far one of the countries with the highest rate of motorization (639.6 cars per thousand inhabitants), increasing over the level of Germany (561.3) and Spain (503.7).
In 2018, in Italy, the number of deaths in road accidents, compared to the resident population (55.2 per million inhabitants), was confirmed higher than the EU average (49.1 per one million inhabitants). Italy ranked sixteenth in the European ranking, showing a higher mortality than the large EU countries like the United Kingdom (27.5), Spain (38.7), Germany (39.4) and France (50.3).