Italy and its regions
Per capita public expenditure at a regional level is highly changeable because of differences existing in the socio-economic conditions and in the management models of regional health systems. In the South and Islands area it is noticeably below the national average, while in the Centre the value is clearly above.
Also the total contribution of household expenditure to health was less in the South and Islands area (19.7% in 2015) particularly in Campania, Sicilia and Puglia. Higher incidence was recorded in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (33.0%) and Valle d'Aosta (30.8%).
A wide gap persisted among the various areas of the country as for hospital beds. Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, the autonomous province of Bolzano and Toscana were "attraction poles" for admissions of non-resident patients. On the contrary Islands, Calabria and Campania showed significantly higher outflows and lower inflows. As for ordinary admissions for diseases of the circulatory system, geographical hetereogenity was diminishing by time passing, and bed occupancy rates tended to converge towards the national average.
In the South and Islands area mortality for neoplasms was below the national average, on the contrary mortality for diseases of the circulatory system, both for males and females, was above the national average. Even infant mortality was higher in the South and Islands area, although there was a significant improvement in the last decade.
Risky alcohol consumption and obesity showed opposed territorial situations, namely in the Centre-North was higher the share of alcohol consumers, in the South and Islands area the share of obese people. The highest shares of smokers were recorded in Campania, Umbria and Basilicata. Smoking, alcohol and obesity manly affect men, with differences related to age groups.