Science, technology and innovation
In 2015 total R&D expenditure by enterprises, public institutions, non-profit private institutions and universities was nearly 22.2 billion euros; the percentage of R&D spending on Gdp remained stable compared to 2014 and reached 1.34%.
The number of patents per million inhabitants continued to decrease.
In 2017 the share of Italian enterprises with at least 10 persons employed that used a website to present their activity increased and reached 72.1%.
In 2015 R&D personnel (measured in terms of full-time equivalent units) amounted to 259,166.6 units, with an overall increase of 3.9% compared to 2014. Over 50% of R&D personnel works for the private sector, 29.7% in universities and 14.9% in public institutions.
The number of S&T graduates aged 20-29 was in line with the values recorded in the previous years. The indicator was slightly decreasing for the male component and the gender gap reduced.
In 2017 65.3% of individuals aged 6 and over access the Internet. Over 9 out of 10 young people aged between 15 and 24 access the Internet; gender gaps are very small for users aged until 44 and progressively increase with increasing age.
The share of households using a fast internet connection has remarkably increased and reached 70.2%.