5.1 million foreign citizens were enrolled on municipal population registers at 1st January 2018 (1.9% more than in the previous year, corresponding to 97,000 units), the equivalent of 8.5% of the total number of residents.
Live births by foreign citizens have decreased (68,000). The number of new Italian citizens has increased (reaching 301,000 units), while the number of persons cancelled from municipal population registers remained stable (41,000). 147,000 new permits were issued in 2017 (-37.5% compared to the previous year).
In the same year, Italy has registered an increase of inflows of non-Eu citizens: 262,770 new permits were issued (+15.8%), thus reversing the decreasing trend observed in the period between 2010 and 2016. The majority of permits, substantially stable compared to 2017, is for work and family reasons.
The level of education among non-nationals is still lower than among Italians: the share of non-nationals aged 15-64 with at least lower secondary education amounted to over 50% (about 4 out of 10 among nationals), those with upper secondary education were 34.7% and 11.0% completed tertiary education (17.8% for Italians).
There is still a gap between unemployment rates among nationals and non-nationals: in 2018 the employment rate of non-nationals aged 20-64 reached 64.4% as against 62.8% for Italians. The unemployment rate decreased among both nationals and non-nationals, though the latter still registered higher rates; conversely, the inactivity rate of non-nationals was still lower than that for Italians (28.8% as against 35.0%), with larger gaps in the South and Islands.